5th - 12th cent AD
each section there exists a Google-Earth.kmz file which locates the
places on the globe. These files open only in GE, which you must
Indian Mahayana Buddhism
427 - 1197AD
of Nalanda University, 427 - 1197AD
Nalada was a Buddhist university from 427 AD to 1197 AD partly under the Pala Empire.It was established 450 AD under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notably Kumaragupta. In 1193. Sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khilji;was a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India.
Group of Tibetan Buddhists meditating at Nalanda
Caves, Buddhist, Hindu, Jain
5th - 11th cent AD
In contradistinction to Ajanta the famous Ellora caves are ornamented with purely sculptural decorations. They comprise vihayas which served Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain monastic congrations. Like in the other early cave sanctuaries, the caves are entirely man-made.
Caves 1-12 at the southern end are the earliest
5th - 7th cent AD
The Buddhist caves were the earliest structures, created between the 5th and 7th cent. These consist mostly of viharas or monasteries
Cave 10. The most famous Buddhist chaitya 700 AD
Rashtrakuta Caves 13-29
8th-10th cent AD
The first Hindu caves were constructed in the beginning of the 8th century by the Rashtrakutas. The Shaivite Cave 16, the Kailasa or Kailasanatha, is the unrivaled centerpiece of Ellora. Designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva – it looks like a freestanding, it was entirely carved out of the standing rock.
Temple from above 8th cent
the deep canyons of the Kailasa Temple.
and Parvati fending off Ravana
Photo Olivier Gillet, Sacred Destinations
Caves 30-34 are the youngest caves in Ellora
9th - 11 cent AD
They reflect the Jain inclination to asceticism, and contain exceptional sculptural carvings.
late Jain carving.
Photo from a Diana Criswell, Sacred Destinations